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FYSS 585  8 ECTS credits

FYSS 585  Advanced computer based data acquisition and control systems



 

 

Course objectives

On completion of the course the student wil be able:
- To use conventional Laplace transform methods for designing controllers and compensator
- Be able to use simulation tools (e.g. MATLAB) for Laplace transform, state equation and fuzzy control system design.
- Design and construct sophisticated computer-based measurement facilities for frontier research  that involve multiple-input multiple-output and integrate both control and measurement functions.
- Be able to implement a control and/or measurement systems based on a Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC).

Course goals

The course is designed to provide research groups with the advanced computer-based data acquisition and control systems needed for cutting edge research. This is done by training research students in the mathematical basis of data acquisition, analysis and control and how to implement this. The course will develop skills in the use of MATLAB and LabVIEW.

The course is not a basic course in LabVIEW or Matlab and assumes basic competence in using these environments. Some knowledge of basic integral transforms is required.

Credits

 5 or  8 ECTS,  corresponding to 140  or  240  hours of full-time study, respectively.

Prerequisite knowledge

The course requires basic competence in programing in LabVIEW. FYSS385 provides this skill, or it may be obtained  by self-study using the NI website.
Prerequisites:
FYSA200 FYSE301+FYSE302, FYSE410 or equivalent.

Registration

Registration for the course is made in  KORPPI

Mode of instruction

The course is offered at two credit levels, 5 crp and 8 crp. The difference is the length of the project which is 60 h or 160 h full-time work, respectively. The course consists of:
Lectures (2h)         6
Labs (3h)               6
Self-study            20 h
Mid-term exam    10 h
Project report    17 h
Oral report            3 h
Project                60 h or 160 h for 5 and 8 crp respectively

The course, labs and exercise classes are taught in English.

Lecture topics

Lecture 1
High-performance data collection and signal processing approaches
PIC controllers, Buffers, Direct memory access, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) L1.pdf

Lecture 2
Signals, images and sampling theory, Fourier, Laplace, wavelet and z-transform representations. Power spectra, autocorrelation functions and cross correlation functions L2.pdf

Lecture 3
Control and sampling system implementation
Block diagrams, Single input - single output. Laplace transform approach, multi-input multi-output systems, space-state equation approach. MATLAB simulations. L3.pdf

Lecture 4
Controllers, compensators and filters
Digital filters, Fourier domain filters in 1D and 2D, compensators, P- and PID controllers. Ziegler Nichols tuning,  Servos systems, response functions. L4.pdf

Lecture 5
Fuzzy logic
Types of uncertainty, linguistic variable, fuzzy logic, hardware implementation, neural nets, combination with conventional logic and control. Application to appliances and industrial control. L5.pdf

Lecture 6
Wavelet approaches
Wavelet properties, wavelet families, scale, wavelet decomposition of signals and images, denoising
L6.pdf
 

Lectures

Lecture notes (and exercise materials) will be published on internet.  "Click" on the links in the previous section

Exercises

The exercises are to be handed in individually.  They are meant to reinforce some of the points made in the lectures and do not necessary have a 1:1 correspondence with lecture material. The lectures are carried out using MATLAB. This is installed on standard JYNET "Research Group" Windows PCs and can be obtained for a small sum for installation on your private PC, or mac/LINUX machines.

Exercise 1 Up to speed with Matlab (See literature).

Exercise 2 Laplace transforms

Exercise 3 Block diagrams, Partial fraction inversion of Laplace transforms, Lapalace trasnforms in Matlab

Exercise 4 Response functions

Exercise 5 Root loci and bode plots

Exercise 6 Fuzzy logic inference and wavelet analysis  Image files for lab: E6a.png, E6b.png


Laboratory work

- These require the use of a PC or Mac to study the use of software etc.
The lab part of the course consists of two labs were the entire class perform the lab at the same time. The remaining four labs are carried out on an individual labs which are carried out by agreeing a time with the lab assistant responsible for the lab.  FL349 can be used for the labs when it is not booked for other teaching.

Interface card
Some lab works are based on using a an NI USB-6009 interface card.  This has up  8 14 bit ADCs, 2 12 bit DACs and 12 digital I/O lines and a 32 bit counter. The interface can be controlled and handled using a sub-set of the National Instruments DAQmx software.

Generic interface VIs
The following generic interface VIs are for the NI USB-6009 interface. They are single-task VIs that can be used to output a  single voltage and read a single voltage, digital line or the counter from the NI USB-6009 interface.  They are intended to be used for constructing simple instruments such as a digital voltmeter, conductivity meter,  power meter etc.  They are intended to be used one after another (sequentially) for slow input and output and they do not make use of hardware for high-speed readout.

It turns out there are some small differences between Mac and PC VIs. Therefore two versions are provided.
Mac VIs
Virtual_instruments/Generic_Analog_out.vi
Virtual_instruments/Generic_Analog_in.vi
Virtual_instruments/Generic_digital_in.vi
Virtual_instruments/Generic_counter_in.vi

PC VIs
PC-generic%20VIs/Generic_Analog_in.vi
PC-generic%20VIs/Generic_Analog_out.vi


Lab 1.  Getting up to speed with LabVIEW 
The goal of this lab is to refresh experience with using LabVIEW. The task is make a VI that is a two parameter analyzer to measure the I-V characteristics of a diode. Subsequently make a VI that fits the conducting region of the characteristic curve to measure the ideality factor. You may use the simple generic analogue input and output VIs. Nb. the VI's are different for PC and Mac.
Instructions: LAB1
Uses NI USB-6009 interface card. 
Example VI: V-I.vi

Lab 2 Buffers, triggering and sampling.
The goal of this lab is to study the how to implement buffering for high speed data collection and triggering with sampled data and demonstrate criteria sampling. LAB2
Uses  NI USB-6009 interface card and DAQmx software drivers.

Lab 3 Peripheral interface controller
The goal of this lab is to experience implementation of a simple microcontroller and readout by programming, compiling and downloading the software to a PIC to realist a simple stand-alone controller. The PIC is the Ardino Uno which has analog and digital input and output. The programming is simple, but gives a good example of what is needed and how easy (or not difficult) it is to do. The lab is based on material and example code is from the webpages of Limor at Adafruit Industries http://www.ladyada.net/learn/arduino/ .
LAB3, example program: bright_1.txt

Lab 4 PID controllers and Ziegler Nichols tuning
This lab explores how to make stable control systems using PID controllers for regulation (e.g. a magnet power supply) and as a servo-system for following a changing control input. LAB4,
VI files:  V2temp.vi, Plant-init.vi, Plant.vi, Plant4.vi, PID-2.vi

Lab 5. Spatial domain and Fourier optics analysis of images.
In this lab different approaches to digital filtering of  2D images are explored. Filtering in the Fourier and real space domain are demonstrated. LAB5, image: A, image: B

Lab 6  Lock-in amplifiers and phase sensitive detection
In this lab a simple digital implimentation of a phase sensitive detection system for extraction of slow changes in a weak signal bureid in noise. LAB6

Project

The goal of the project is to develop an advanced system for data acquisition, data filtering-analysis and control that serves the needs of front-line research in the research groups. The requirements for the project are:

- The projec
t is an open-en
ded and must be carried out in a research group. This is to ensure the project is reliant and useful. As it involves the equipment used by the research groups it is expected they finance any necessary additional costs associated with the project.
 
-
In this course the project is very demanding and substantial. The time allocated to the project is 160 hours = 4 weeks full time work. The project is decided at the very start of the course and several months are allowed for completion.

- It is a absolute requirement that the the project must contain independent theoretical development on which the experimental work is based. The theory part should support the experimental work by e.g. predicting the performance envelope and the approach used for the development of the advanced data acquisition/data filtering/control system. It should not be a general theoretical description of the research groups, but must describe the theoretical basis of the system design.

- Project steering committee. To guide the project to successful and effective completion a committee will be set up consisting of the responsible supervisor in the research group, the course leader and a student from the course. They will review the project at the start and after 2/3 of the progress of the project. This committee also mark the project report at the end of the project.

The  project reviews which you and your supervisor should attend take place on Tue. 13 March 2012 10-12 in Harry's office. The reserve time is Thu. 15 March 2012 10-12. A booking list will be put up on the door.


Projects 2011

The following projects are offered:

1. Fluorescence detection at the few-photon level using  a silicon multi-pixel photon counter.

2. A digital terminal voltage controller for a Pelletron Accelerator

3. Automation and control of the thermobalance

4. Improvement of control system for MeV ion beam lithography using the PPAL technique

 


Literature

Lecture notes published on the internet.

Source literature (LabView)
1. Introduction to NI LabVIEW  National Instruments,  http://www.ni.com/gettingstarted/labviewbasics/

2.Measurement and Instrumentation: Educator and Classroom Resources, National Instruments 
http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/tut/p/id/6031#software

3. Learn 10 Functions in NI-DAQmx and Handle 80 Percent of Your Data Acquisition Applications, National Instruments    http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/tut/p/id/2835  (A bit technical but gives a good introduction to functions in the USB-6009.)

4. Building an Analog Input VI in NI-DAQmx, National Instruments, http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/tut/p/id/5370  (Great video presentation that shows how to use the hardware interface.)

5. Tips and Techniques in Data Acquisition Triggering - NI-DAQmx,  National Instruments  http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/tut/p/id/4329, (Good presentation of hardware triggering options.)

6. NI-DAQmx Express VI Tutorial, National Instruments, http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/tut/p/id/2744 (Good step-by-step guide for setting up the DAQ with an express VI.)

7. NI-DAQmx Base: Write to Digital Line, National Instruments,  http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/epd/p/id/1688, (VI for digital interfacing USB-6009).

8. Approximate Frequency Measurement with USB-600X Simple Edge Counter, National Instruments  http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/epd/p/id/513 (illustration of how the counter can be used.) (Not Mac)

9. Get Up and Running Fast With the USB 600x Series DAQ Device, National Instruments,  http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/tut/p/id/9541 (Useful VI to test USB-6009 bix)

10. Make Accurate Power Measurements with NI Tools, National Instruments,  http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/tut/p/id/7077 (Useful information about measuring power voltage and current.)

11. A quick guide to National Instruments USB-6009 and USB-6008 multifunction I/O devices, Tech Teach, http://techteach.no/tekdok/usb6009/index.htm  (Useful getting started guide with videos for PC).

12. Building a Homemade Nuclear Fusion Reactor with NI USB-DAQ, http://decibel.ni.com/content/blogs/labview-tech-content/2010/08/20/building-a-homemade-nuclear-fusion-reactor-with-ni-usb-daq (Do not try this at home.)

13. Episode 01: DIY Fireworks with LabVIEW  http://decibel.ni.com/content/docs/DOC-5488 (Cool video)

14. Tutorial: Arrays and clusters, National Instruments http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/tut/p/id/7571 (Useful reference on how to handle arrays and clusters.)

15. Field wiring and Noise considerations for analog signals. National Instruments, http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/tut/p/id/3344

Source literature (Matlab)
1. J. Meneval, Helpful information on using Matlab, http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/maneval/help211/helpmain.html

2. Some useful exercises on Matlab (Source unknown)

3. Mathlabs inc. Matlab 7 Getting started guide, http://www.mathworks.se/help/pdf_doc/matlab/getstart.pdf

4. Author unknown, Mathlab beginers guide, http://www.bumatek.boun.edu.tr/orgnizasyon/download/MATLAB_GUIDE_www.bumatek.boun.edu.tr.pdf

5. J.H. Scholfield Frequency domain description of a lock-in amplifier Am. J. Phys. 62(1994)129.

Examination

Credits: 5 or 8 ECTS credits.
Grading: Pass grades run from 1 to 5.
Passing the course requires: A minimum score of 40% and completion of all exercises and labs.
Form of the examinations: The student performance is assessed by a mid-term examination (multiple choice), project and associated oral examination.
Project work
The project work will be carried out in the research groups.  Each project will run by a steering group to whom the student will report 2-3 times during the duration of the project. The first time the students will report their proposal as to how the topic will be implemented. The second time will review progress and make suggestions. The third time all the report will be discussed. At a final (common) meeting all the projects will be presented. The oral presentations are assessed in the final meeting.

The marks are assigned as follows:

  • 10%  of the marks are given for the written examination
  • 10% of the marks are given for successful completion of the lab work and exercises
  • 50% marks can be obtained from the project
  • 20 % of the marks are given for the oral 

Examination times

  • The obligatory written examination will be held Wednesday 7 December 2011 1315-1415 in FYS 5  iCal file
  • The written project reports are to be handed by e-mail to harry.j.whitlow@jyu.fi by Fri. 30 March 2012 23.59  EET.
  • The obligatory oral presentation of the projects will be held Wed. 11 April 2012 10-12 in FL 244.


Calendar

The course calendar is available as an calendar file. The calendar is also available in .pdf  form. These calendars are definitive. The course calendar in Korpi is probably not reliable.

Instructors

Lecturer and course coordinator

Prof. Harry J. Whitlow
Room FL 243
Department of Physics PO Box 35 (YFL)
FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä Finland
Telephone: +358-14-260 2465,
Fax: +358-14-260 2351 
e-mail: harry.j.whitlow at jyu.fi 

(Spam prevention: "at" in e-mail addresses should be replaced by the symbol  @)

Course assistants

Jiku (Rattanaporn Norarat) will act as course assistant .

 

  08.02.2011 harry.j.whitlow@jyu.fi